Several diarrhea was a major cause of malnutrition. This would in fact be overestimated overestimated. The hypothesis of an effect of imbalances of the intestinal flora independently of diarrhea, of long-term growth, is now more credible. Chronic inflammation induced by permanent microbiological stimulation due to a diet heavily contaminated with non-pathogenic bacteria appears to induce villous atrophy leading to anorexia and malnutrition. This gut microbiota analysis was performed with the Maldi-TOF, currently it can be performed using high throughput sequencing methods.