Temporal analysis of IgG antibody responses to Plasmodium falciparum antigens in relation to changing malaria epidemiology in a West African setting
 
 

Temporal analysis of IgG antibody responses to Plasmodium falciparum antigens in relation to changing malaria epidemiology in a West African setting

Makhtar Niang1†, Oumy Niass1†, Nafissatou Diagne2, Fatoumata Diene Sarr3, Michel Matar Faye1, Fode Diop1, Babacar Diouf1, Joseph Faye3, Abdoulaye Badiane3, Ronald Perraut1, Cheikh Sokhna2, Jean‐François Trape2, Adama Tall3 and Aissatou Toure‐Balde1*

Abstract

Background: Coordinated scaled‐up malaria control interventions have substantially contributed to the dramatic decrease of malaria‐related morbidity and mortality in several endemic countries, including Senegal. However, the impacts of a given malaria control intervention on vector and parasite populations, acquired immunity, and disease burden remain very poorly documented largely due to the lack of continuous surveys. This study took advantage
of the sera bank established as part of the Dielmo longitudinal project to investigate the dynamics of IgG antibody responses that accompanied the epidemiological changes resulting from malaria control interventions. Schizonts crude extract of a local strain of Plasmodium falciparum (Pfsch07/03) was used in ELISA to measure and compare sero‐ prevalence and magnitude of IgG antibody responses from 2000 to 2012.

Results: The prevalence of Pfsch07/03 IgG antibody responses progressively decreased from 97.25% in 2000 to 57.3% in 2012. The prevalence of Pfsch07/03 antibodies categorized between three different age groups (<7, 7–15, and
>15 years) revealed increased seroprevalence with age ranging from 47.19 to 62.67 and 89.45%, respectively in (<7, 7–15, and >15 years) old age groups. A marked drop in seroprevalence was observed after 2008 and was significant in the younger (<7 years) and intermediate (7–15 years) age groups, unlike older individuals aged >15 years (p = 1.00).

Conclusions: The study revealed a substantial contribution of all malaria control interventions to the decrease of IgG antibodies responses to Pfsch07/03 throughout prevention of human‐mosquitos contacts, or reduction of parasite biomass. The present study demonstrates the wider potential of sero‐epidemiological analysis in monitoring changes in malaria transmission resulting from a given malaria control intervention.

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